Postmodern architecture began as an international style the first examples of which are generally cited as being from the 1950s, but did not become a movement until the late 1970 and continues to influence present-day architecture. Postmodernity in architecture is said to be heralded by the return of “wit, ornament and reference” to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism. As with many cultural movements, some of Post modernism’s most pronounced and visible ideas can be seen in architecture

Influential early large-scale examples of postmodern architecture are Michael GravesPortland Building in Portland, Oregon andPhilip Johnson‘s Sony Building (originally AT&T Building) in New York City, which borrows elements and references from the past and reintroduces color and symbolism to architecture.

The Sony Building (formerly AT&T building) in New York City, 1984, by Philip Johnson, illustrating a “Postmodern” spin with the inclusion of a classical broken pediment on the top which diverged from the boxy functional office towers common in Modern Architecture.

Postmodern architecture has also been described as neo-eclectic, where reference and ornament have returned to the facade, replacing the aggressively unornamented modern styles. This eclecticism is often combined with the use of non-orthogonal angles and unusual surfaces, most famously in the State Gallery of Stuttgart by James Stirling and the Piazza d’Italia by Charles Moore. TheScottish Parliament Building in Edinburgh has also been cited as being of postmodern vogue.

Aims and characteristics

The aims of Postmodernism, which include solving the problems of Modernism, communicating meanings with ambiguity, and sensitivity for the building’s context, are surprisingly unified for a period of buildings designed by architects who largely never collaborated with each other. These aims do, however, leave room for diverse implementations as can be illustrated by the variety of buildings created during the movement.

The characteristics of postmodernism allow its aim to be expressed in diverse ways. These characteristics include the use of sculptural forms, ornaments, anthropomorphism and materials which perform trompe l’oeil. These physical characteristics are combined with conceptual characteristics of meaning. These characteristics of meaning include pluralism, double coding, flying buttresses and high ceilings, irony and paradox, and contextualism.

Charles Correa (born 1 September 1930) is a noted Indian architect, urban planner and activist. An influential architect credited for the creation of modern architecture in post-Independence India. He is noted for his sensitivity to the needs of the urban poor and for his use of traditional methods and materials

-JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA

-LIC BUILDING, NEW DELHI

-MAHATMA GANDHI MEMORIAL, AHMEDABAD

Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. He is especially known for hispostmodern work since the 1980s.

-THE EUROPE GATE, MADRID

-GLASS HOUSE, NEW YORK

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