Greek architecture is well known for its temples which can be found throughout the area such as the Acropolis and Parthenon, theaters that are open-air, Agora or public squares, and their Stoa or covered walkways.
While most of the ancient buildings were made of wood and mud brick, some later buildings have ruins that showcased the Greek’s architectural expertise and distinct style which uses columns that have different styles.
Greek architecture has three architectural styles outlined in three orders, namely; the Corinthian Order, the Doric Order, and the Ionic Order. These orders have three distinct types of columns composed of a base, a middle shaft, and a capital.
The Corinthian Order is the most ornate of the three orders with fluted columns and intricately designed bell-shaped capitals with acanthus leaves as decorations. The Olympieion of Athens and the Sarapeum of Alexandria showcase the Corinthian Order.
The Doric Order is the simplest and oldest of the three orders. It has no base, and its shaft is made up of 20 plain sides made up of concave curves called flutes. The capital is made of a circular bottom called the echinus that is topped by a square called the abacuswhich makes it appear plain but powerful.
The frieze has simple patterns with vertical channels or triglyphs as decorations with metopes in-between. The metopes are sometimes decorated with statues of gods and heroes. The most famous example of the Doric Order is the Parthenon in Athens.
The Ionic Order, on the other hand, is the next order that is developed in the Ionian Islands. It is used in smaller buildings and is known for the scrolls on its capital which are called volutes. Between the volutes are the egg and dart which are carved on a curved section. The columns are more slender in contrast to the Doric Order’s stocky and massive columns with large bases. The shafts are taller with carved lines or flutes running from top to bottom and a distinct bulge or entasis making it look straight.
The Temple of Athena at Nike, which is located near the entrance to the Athens’ Acropolis, is an example of the Ionic Order. It was extensively used during the Hellenistic period and is more decorative and relaxed than the more formal Doric Order.
1.The Doric Order is a Greek architectural style which is characterized by its massive and stocky columns while the 2.Ionic Order is a Greek architectural style which is characterized by its more slender and taller columns.
3.The Doric is the simplest and oldest of the three Greek architectural orders while the Ionic is the second order that was developed.
4.The Doric Order has no base while the Ionic Order does.
5.The capital of the Doric order is very simple, consisting only of a round bottom and a square top while the capital of the Ionic Order is more elaborate with volutes or scrolls that have a carved egg and dart on its curved section.